Click on the images below to access the pdf file. Scroll down for sources and calculations.
Global palm oil production
100,000 premature deaths in South-East Asia, 2,200 in Singapore
Study by scientists from Harvard University and Columbia University to be published in the journal Environmental Research Letters: Public health impacts of the severe haze in Equatorial Asia in September–October 2015
Layman friendly summary by Bloomberg: Study Estimates 100,000 Premature Deaths From Indonesia Haze
2.6 million hectares burnt and USD16 billion losses
The World Bank report: The cost of fire : an economic analysis of Indonesia’s 2015 fire crisis
SGD700 million cost to Singapore
Declaration from Minister Masagos on 15 March 2016.
Palm oil represents 38% of global vegetable oil consumption
United States Department of Agriculture. August 2016. Oilseeds: World Markets and Trade.
Palm oil is good for frying thanks to a high smoking point
Healthiest Cooking Oil Comparison Chart with Smoke Points and Omega 3 Fatty Acid Ratios
Palm oil is in 50% of supermarket goods
Figure used by the WWF as early as their 2009 buyers scorecard.
Comparison of major oil crops yield
European Palm Oil alliance infographic
2.6 million hectares is 36 times the size of Singapore
Size of Singapore in 2015 was 719.1 square kilometres according to Singapore government data.
1 square kilometre = 100 hectares
Switching to RSPO saves 300 trees per year.
Calculations are based on the difference of yield:
5 tons/ha for RSPO oil versus 3.7 tons/ha for oil that is not certified (source: European Palm Oil alliance infographic).
Based on our outreach with Singaporean eateries, we make the hypothesis of a consumption of 17kg/day during 365 days. This is about 6.2 tons/year (17*365/1000).
The land needed to produce those 6.2 tons is 1.24 ha for RSPO (6.2/5) and 1.68 ha for not RSPO (6.2/3.7) which means about 0.44 ha saved (1.68-1.24).
Moist tropical forest average density is about 660 trees/ha (Crowther et al. Mapping tree density at a global scale. 2015) which would mean 288 trees saved (660*0.44). This was rounded to 300.
100 tons of CO2 emissions avoided by not planting on peat
Oil-palm plantations established on peat release about 60 tons of carbon dioxide per hectare and per year (Murdiyarso et al. Opportunities for reducing greenhouse gas emissions in tropical peatlands. 2010, layman friendly article: Counting the carbon cost of peatland conversion).
Producing 6.2 tons of RSPO oil requires about 1.24 ha, therefore about 101 tons of CO2 emissions (60*1.24) can be avoided by not planting on peat. This was rounded to 100.